The song is "How the Money Changes Hands." And no, it has nothing to do with the budget deficit and little to do with government either. Though it does at least touch on government and ultimately deals with the whole morass of money. But mainly, whatever the overlap, it's just a fun and terrific song.
And as it happens, there's a somewhat similar song from Candide, written a few years earlier, with music by Leonard Bernstein. Since there were about half a people who contributed to the lyrics over the years, I can't swear to wrote the words to this particular song. But here's "What's the Use? --